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Table of contents

The Upper Paleolithic, however, involved more than just a new way of flaking stone; it was a veritable technological revolution.

Fruit of the Loom

Unlike their Middle Paleolithic predecessors, the hunter-gatherers of the Upper Paleolithic started to create lots of bone tools, including awls and needles to fabricate clothing and nets, and they made lamps, fishhooks, flutes, and more. They also built more complex camps, sometimes with semipermanent houses. In addition, Upper Paleolithic hunters created much more lethal projectile weapons, such as spear throwers and harpoons. Many heroes of the early Industrial Revolution were chemists and engineers, often amateurs such as Michael Faraday and James Watt who lacked formal degrees or academic appointments.

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Like many young Victorians excited by the winds of change, Charles Darwin and his elder brother Erasmus dreamed as boys of becoming chemists. Louis Pasteur began his career as a chemist working on the structure of tartaric acid, which was used in wine production.

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But in the process of studying fermentation he discovered microbes, invented methods to sterilize food, and created the first vaccines. Without Pasteur and other pioneers in microbiology and public health, the Industrial Revolution would not have progressed so far and so fast. In short, the Industrial Revolution was actually a combination of technological, economic, scientific, and social transformations that rapidly and radically altered the course of history and reconfigured the face of the planet in less than ten generations—a true blink of an eye by the standards of evolutionary time.

But as soon as the Upper Paleolithic begins around 50, years ago, one can use artifacts to identify distinctive cultures that have discrete distributions in time and space. Ever since the Upper Paleolithic began, every part of the world has witnessed an endless series of cultural transformations, fueled by endlessly inventive and creative minds.

These changes are still going on today at an increasing pace. In short, if there is anything most different about modern humans compared to our archaic cousins it is our remarkable capacity and proclivity to innovate through culture. Some of the greatest cultural advances of the last few thousand years occurred thanks to more effective methods of transmitting information, such as writing, the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet. These and other information revolutions, however, all followed from an even earlier, more fundamental great leap forward in communication: modern human speech.

Additionally, the distinctive short and retracted face of modern humans gives our vocal tract a unique configuration with useful acoustic properties. They were then expected to work steadily and rapidly for twelve or more hours under the supervision of foremen whose job was to ensure that production continued efficiently and effectively.

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Eighty-plus-hour weeks, low wages, and dangerous working conditions were so prevalent that eventually labor unions and governments began to enact reforms to make industrial work safer and less inhumane. Inventions like farming, computers, and Marxism were created through ingenuity and for a purpose. In addition, memes are transmitted not just from parents to offspring, but from multiple sources. Reading this book is just one of your many horizontal exchanges of information today.

Together, these differences make cultural evolution a faster and often more potent cause of change than biological evolution. This idea, known as the mismatch hypothesis, is the core of the new, emerging field of evolutionary medicine, which applies evolutionary biology to health and disease. A second, more moderate class of industrial jobs requires workers to stand and do things with the help of tools and machines. These jobs, which include working on an assembly line or doing laboratory work, tend to be as energetically costly as walking at a comfortable speed.

These differences are consequential because even minor changes in expenditure add up over many long hours. How genes and bodies change over time is incredibly important, but another momentous dynamic to grapple with is cultural evolution, now the most powerful force of change on the planet and one that is radically transforming our bodies.

Culture is essentially what people learn, and so cultures evolve. Culture can therefore evolve with breathtaking rapidity and degree. Human cultural evolution got its start millions of years ago, but it accelerated dramatically after modern humans first evolved around , years ago, and it has now reached dizzying speeds.

The Industrial Revolution profoundly altered how much physical activity people do not just at work, but also for the rest of the day. Many of the most successful products invented and manufactured since the start of the Industrial Revolution have been labor-saving devices. Cars, bicycles, airplanes, subways, escalators, and elevators reduce the energy cost of traveling.

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Put simply, mismatches are caused by stimuli that are too much, too little, or too new. Technological and economic changes over the last few generations have altered the infectious diseases we contract, the foods we eat, the drugs we take, the work we do, the pollutants we ingest, how much energy we spend and consume, the social stresses we experience, and more.

Many of these changes have been beneficial, but as the following chapters will outline we are poorly or insufficiently adapted to handle others, contributing to disease. A common characteristic of these diseases, moreover, is that they occur from interactions whose cause and effect are not immediate or otherwise obvious. PALs for male adults with clerical or administrative jobs that involve sitting all day long average 1. Such a reduction is not trivial. If an average-sized male farmer or carpenter who spends approximately 3, calories per day suddenly switches to a sedentary lifestyle by retiring, his energy expenditure will decline by about calories a day.

In addition, there is a strong incentive for manufacturers and advertisers to cater to our evolved desires and sell us products that increase our convenience, comfort, efficiency, and pleasure—or that carry the illusion of being advantageous. Junk food is popular for a reason. If you are like me, you use commercial products nearly twenty-four hours a day, even when you are asleep.

Many of these products, like the chair I am sitting on, make me feel good, but not all of them are healthy for my body.

The Story of the Human Body Quotes

The hypothesis of dysevolution predicts that as long as we accept or cope with the symptoms of the problems these products create, often thanks to other products, and as long as the benefits exceed the costs, then we will continue to buy and use them and pass them on to our children, keeping the cycle going long after we are gone. The result of their ingenuity is a superabundance of inexpensive calorie-dense food. The company's logo comprising a red apple, leaves, green grapes, currants, and purple grapes forms a widely recognizable [ by whom? The company is a vertically integrated manufacturer.

The origin of the Fruit of the Loom company dates back to in Rhode Island , [5] [6] when textile mill owner Robert Knight and his brother Benjamin established the "B. In , the company changed its name to "Fruit of the Loom", while producing its first muslins. Skeel's daughter painted images of apples and applied them to the bolts of cloth.

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  4. The ones with the apple emblems proved most popular. In , just one year after the first trademark laws were passed by Congress, Knight received trademark number for the brand "Fruit of the Loom". Much of its athletic outerwear was sold under the "Pro Player" label, a now defunct division.

    Fashion Through the Ages

    The company was part of Northwest Industries , Inc. Farley in and renamed Farley Industries, Inc. Farley served as president, CEO, and majority shareholder for 15 years. Debt financing proved difficult to manage even as sales revenue quintupled. Reasons for the bankruptcy are varied. A large debt load which was assumed in the s, a common practice at the time, did not help. William F. The company was bought from bankruptcy by Berkshire Hathaway Corporation, controlled by investor Warren Buffett , who wanted the valuable brand. The deal was concluded on April 29, Brands products also include casual apparel Jerzees, Russell Athletic , and sports equipment through American Athletic Inc.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American clothing manufacturer.

    Company headquarters building in Bowling Green, Kentucky. Bowling Green , Kentucky. United States. Retrieved June 10, Fast Co Design.

    The Industrial Revolution (18-19th Century)

    Retrieved 29 August The New York Times. Retrieved 29 April Los Angeles Times. December 30, Berkshire Hathaway. Retrieved January 23, April 17, January 23, Retrieved May 31,